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In early Coptic bindings, this was done by lacing the sewing threads through pre-bored holes in the edges of the boards and tying them down.In medieval bindings, thongs or cords were threaded through grooves called "channels" cut into the boards and secured with pegs or nails.

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Encapsulation is preferred in preservation work because it is reversible (see this example of a document damaged by lamination).

Lamination is also used in libraries to protect and enhance the appearance of dust jackets on hardcover books and the covers of paperbacks.

First developed in China and Japan, lacquer is a technique in which layer upon layer of resinous varnish is applied to a surface, giving it a hard, smooth, glossy appearance.

Click here and here to see examples of Persian lacquered bindings, courtesy of the Royal Library of Denmark.

Available in rolls from library suppliers, Fine bluish-black carbon soot originally collected from oil lamps for use as a pigment in ink used for writing and printing.

Lampblack is still used as a pigment because it is very stable and not affected by light, acids, and alkalis (see this example). A biting satire written in prose or verse, usually directed against an individual in public life or an institution that has become the object of public scrutiny.

A book of exercises that includes instructions for laboratory experiments to be carried out, usually under the supervision of an instructor, by a student enrolled in a course in the sciences, often published in softcover in conjunction with a textbook.

In hand-binding, the attachment of the sewing supports to the boards.

When pasteboard replaced wooden boards, the cords were threaded through holes pierced in the pasteboard and the ends attached by various means.

Click here to see examples (Princeton University Library) and here to see the process of sewing and lacing in demonstrated (A 19th-century style of bookbinding in which one or both boards, usually made of wood or papier mâché, are covered in colored lacquer, usually embellished with ornamental designs.

Also refers to a piece of material (leather, parchment, or paper) not integral to the cover of a book that is printed, stamped, or engraved, usually with the title and name of author, and affixed to the spine or front cover.

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