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Reports of tests, however, were predominantly of experience for the skin stimulus beginning before experience for the cortical stimulus.

(2.2) There is no such surprising order of conscious experiences reported with subcortical stimulation.

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as evidence for a greatly different dualism, one which denies psychophysical lawlike correlation and asserts a kind of surveillance and control of the brain by "the self-conscious mind", despite some acting of the brain on "the self-conscious mind".

, to show why it has been supposed that the hypothesis is evidence against an identity theory of mind and brain and the theory of psychophysical lawlike correlation, and evidence for "the self-conscious mind"; What is maintained by the authors derives from two sets of findings (1.1 to 1.3 and 2.1 to 2.4 below) pertaining to neuronal activity and to the temporal order of a subject’s pairs of sensory experiences, and also from (3) findings having to do with a "primary" evoked potential in somatosensory cortex.

This reseach has lately been given a kind of attention by Daniel Dennett and Marcel Kinsbourne in The Nature of Consciousness: Philosophical Debates (1997) edited by Ned Block, Owen Flanagan and Guven Guzeldere.

It has also surfaced in The Volitional Brain: Towards a Neuroscience of Free Will (1999), edited by Libet, Anthony Freeman & Keith Sutherland, and John Searle's Royal Institute of Philosophy Annual Lecture.

The view involves a fundamental inconsistency, which may cast doubt on certain experimental findings. The preferable hypothesis, which itself is doubtful, has been thought to have mind-brain consequences principally because it has not been distinguished from the other and different hypothesis.

The different hypothesis, which in fact does have the given consequences, is entirely unacceptable. (1979) claim to advance a single hypothesis about the time of a conscious sensory experience in relation to the time when there occurs a certain physical condition, "neuronal adequacy" for the experience.

Patrick Galvin of Politico notes a couple of recent uses, such as Sen.

Mike De Wine's statement on "Fox & Friends" in 2006: "I think anyone that is associated with him campaigning needs to refudiate these comments." And on Language Log, Mark Liberman points to a playful usage in John Sladek's 1984 collection of science-fiction short stories, of June 21, 1925: a headline reading "Scandal Taint Refudiated In Teapot Case by Court, Fall Says in Statement." The headline refers to a court ruling in the Teapot Dome scandal that rejected accusations of fraud against former Secretary of the Interior Albert B. A Fall press release interpreted the verdict as "refuting all taint of scandal," and the hurried headline writer must have mashed up Read the rest here.

However, a stimulus train applied direct to somatosensory cortex does not elicit a similar type of response.

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